First Formic War
In the year 100 BX, Ukko Jukes warned Earth of an impending alien threat. The United Nations responded by forming the Department of Alien Affairs and appointed Kenwe Zubeka as the secretary. However, when the Zubeka contacted the Formics upon their arrival in Earth's orbit, he was killed, initiating the First Formic War, and destroying all hope that the aliens were coming in peace.
The Formics sent three landers down to the surface in China when they arrived. China responded with military force, but they refused to ask for help from any other country, leading to millions of people dying in the Scouring of China. China only received help willingly when the Mobile Operations Police thanked them for receiving their help. The MOPs eventually destroyed one of the landers in China with a tactical nuke.
Approximately one week later, the Formics sent out a wave of reinforcements from the scout ship after it was attacked. India was then able to negotiate an alliance with China after Wit O'Toole, Mazer Rackham, and Shenzu gave India the necessary materials to create a counteragent against the Formic defoliant, which was killing millions. The alliance and the counter-agent allowed the Chinese to recapture several cities from the Formics.
After the Formic Scout Ship was attacked by the MOPs, the Formics left Earth's surface and returned to the scout ship to defend it. Several days after the scout ship was captured, Secretary General Silva announced the formation of the International Fleet, which was a multinational military organization founded to unite the world under one flag in case of another alien attack.
Second Formic War
Over the next three years, the Hegemony was formed and supported by most nations. However, some held out against this alliance and formed their own, the Second Warsaw Pact. The Hegemony instituted strict population laws, limiting each couple to only two children. Thus, a family that had more than 2 children was penalized and the child discriminated against, called a Third. This law was fiercely opposed by Catholic and Muslim nations.
In 95 BX, the Formics returned with the rest of their fleet to batter back the humans and colonize Earth. However, the war took place in space around Saturn, and never got close to Earth like in the First Invasion.
Third Formic War
After the Formics' defeat around Saturn by the hands of Mazer Rackham, the nations of Earth began supplying the International Fleet with even more funds in order to rebuild their defense fleet. The IF, while it told the world that the fleet would be stationed aound the comet shield beyond Pluto, in actuality it sent the fleet to attack the Formic Homeworld. They began recruiting for Battle School, taking children from Earth who showed they had above average intelligence to train them to become fleet commanders.
After Ender Wiggin destroyed the Formic Homeworld and the species save one along with it., the war was over. However, the peace was extremely short. The League War erupted both on Eros and Earth, with the Russian Polemarch attempting to take over the International Fleet on behalf of the Second Warsaw Pact. This lasted 5 days, concluding with the signing of the Locke Proposal.
Turmoil on Earth
The International Fleet was barred from acting on Earth except in the event of another alien invasion, and the Hegemony quickly began losing influence and power. With the alien threat gone, the nations of Earth once again began to fight each other to expand their borders and regain lost national pride. From 2-8 AX, there were massive conflicts between the Muslim League, China, and India, now controlled by the former Battle School Students Alai, Han Tzu, and Virlomi respectively.
While this turmoil was taking place, Peter Wiggin, who once operated under the pseudonym of Locke, became the Hegemon. However, at that point the position was merely a title with no real power. Peter, along with Julian 'Bean' Delphiki, quickly began consolidating the remaining power of the Hegemony. He eventually formed the Free People of Earth, a successor to the Hegemony that would create a world alliance. At first, only weak nations in need of protection joined, but eventually the behemoths India and China joined, along with the Muslim League. Soon enough, every nation on Earth had joined the FPE except for the United States.
A United Earth
The FPE became more stable and came to be known simply as EarthGov. By 200 AX, however, Starways Congress was in control of Earth. It is unknown whether the FPE transformed into Starways Congress or it took another war to form the interstellar government.